Myanmar has a population of 53,897,000 people (UNESCAP 2015), and UNESCAP report 2015 indicated that a total of 2.3%, there are an estimated minimum of 1,276,000 people with disabilities living in Myanmar. The First Myanmar National Disability Survey conducted by the Department of Social Welfare and the Leprosy Mission International in 2010, translating to approximately 1.3 million persons living with disability. The World report on Disability (2011) estimated a 6.4% prevalence rate as more realistic (3.8 million persons). Of this, 68.2% are persons with physical impairment, 13.3% are persons with visual impairment, 10.4% are persons with hearing impairment and 8.1% have some form of intellectual disability. Landmine Monitor has identified over 3,450 landmine casualties in Myanmar/Burma from 1999 through the end of 2013. When compared to previous years, landmine casualties in Myanmar during 2013 and early 2014 have decreased.
The socio economic status of people living with disabilities is consider ably lower than the national average, only 15% reporting any current livelihood, with less than 10% attending high school or having access to healthcare. People living with disability also have limited opportunities to participate in community life and activities, and are excluded from the benefits of programs which could improve their quality of life.
Myanmar has ratified some of the UN Human Rights treaties, including the CRC in 1991, CEDAW in 1997 and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in December 2011. The country has still to ratify the Optional Protocol of the CRPD which would allow persons with disabilities whose rights have been violated to bring complains to the Committee on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The CRPD is the first international, legally binding treaty aimed at protecting the human rights of persons with disabilities.
In 2014, new draft disability legislation is expected along with a new disability policy, a first report to the UN Committee on the rights of persons with disabilities is being prepared and a new census is planned to gain further knowledge on the situation for persons with disabilities. According to reports, access to medical and rehabilitative assistance to mine survivors, and other persons with disabilities, in Myanmar increased significantly during 2013 and early 2014, but remains in adequate.
Also during 2014, a Council of Persons with Disabilities was established to work towards adoption and implementation of laws, policies and programmes in line with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
In terms of national laws and policies pertaining to persons with disabilities, the following are the most important:
• The new constitution (2008) stipulates that the Unions hall “a)care for mothers and children, or phans, fallen Defence Services personnel’s children,the aged and the disabled; b)ensure disabled ex-Servicemen a decent living and free occupational training. ”The Constitution also Myanmar stipulates the right to education for all children.
• The Child Law from 1993 stipulates that children with “mental or physical disabilities” have a right to free primary education or vocational training and a right so special care and assistance from the state.
• A law on Rehabilitation and Employment of persons with disabilities was first enacted in 1958, and has since been revised and amended.
• However, most laws and policies are still not adapted to the CRPD, but there have been on going processes since 2011 to address these gaps. A new comprehensive, “Persons with Disability Rights Law” is expected to be presented by end of 2014. Several operational constraints.
• A National Plan of Action for Persons with Disabilities (2010-2012) was launched in 2010 with the objective to improve opportunities for persons with disabilities to contribute to the country’s development. This Plan Action contains a nationwide focus on persons with disabilities. Its main goals are to increase mobility, accessibility and opportunities for persons with disabilities in order to render them able to enjoy equal rights and to actively contribute to the economic and social development of the state as “responsible citizens”. A part of the strategy is dedicated to inclusive disaster prevention and preparedness. A new Plan of action is being drafted in 2014. On the government website, there is a summary in English of the government position and its cooperation with other actors in the disability field.
Teachers expressed the view that they would like to see more guidelines for curricular developmentand ongoing training. Other recommended groups of older people to provide feedback on their needs to the government.
The means to achieve change, including advocacy of non-governmental organizations and parents groups, the increase in international expertise and the continued improvement of services Brunei approach over time. Structured for home schooling and go to government schools, to ensure that all children with special needs possess access to services and education. A statement SEU requested, so that schools with students with special needs are given the provisions of a special budget to provide the necessary resources. Recommendations were also made for the government to look into the establishment of a facility to provide a sheltered workshop works on watched that young adults are better able to get jobs. Persuasion is needed in the employment sector, so that employment opportunities are made available for young adults who have completed their secondary education.
The role and philosophy of Self Help Organization (SHO) is “Do not walk in front of me, I may not follow. Do not walk behind me, I may not lead. Just walk beside me and be my friend.” The Role of Self Help Organization (SHO) in inclusive development is very important because we are stakeholders in each community. It is We are in the process of implementing our business that generate revenue to ensure financial security, and to achieve important public autism friendly for us to take advantage of this SHO enter fully and actively participate in every stage of development, which will ensure equitable distribution of resources.
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